Nyheter innen silisiumbatterier


Siden dette kan bli et spennende område for REC i nær fremtid, kan det jo være interessant å holde seg oppdatert på nyheter herfra.

Kan jo starte med LG Chem:
LG Chem invests in Enevate; silicon-dominant Li-ion battery technology

Enevate Corporation, developer of a silicon-dominant composite anode material and high energy density batteries (earlier post), announced that LG Chem has participated in Enevate’s recent funding.

Introduced in November 2017, Enevate’s HD-Energy Technology for EVs enables Lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells with up to 50% higher capacity than conventional graphite cells. The cells can be charged to 75% capacity in five minutes. They can also safely charge and discharge down to -40°C and capture more energy during regenerative braking, extending their range in cold climates.

Enevate’s HD-Energy Technology is a self-standing, silicon-dominant composite anode with more than 70% silicon. The conductive, silicon-dominant composite film anode is essentially 100% active material that can store lithium and has a high electrical conductivity.

https://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/10/20181024-enevate.html
questi
21.12.2018 kl 21:24 6802

På lang sikt 100-3000 år så blir det silisium.
Det finnes ingen andre grunnstoffer som kan lagre elektroner like effektivt og som finnes så enorme mengder som Si i Universet :)
Når vi dekker hele Sola eller andre stjerner med energisamlere i ulike former for Dysonsfærer så blir det Si som skal bære energien.
Redigert 21.12.2018 kl 21:24 Du må logge inn for å svare
Falco1
22.12.2018 kl 19:37 6606

Randers og JohnnyBGood gjør det å verdt stikke innom hegnar forum. Ellers mye søppel, men greit å bruke blokker knappen på disse.
Redigert 22.12.2018 kl 19:37 Du må logge inn for å svare
Falco1
24.12.2018 kl 11:12 6407



I presentasjonen 3Q18 sa REC
"5,000-10,000 MT Used Today, By Major Battery Makers Like Tesla, Samsung, Panasonic, LG" og videre "Market Could Exceed 100,000 MT › Strong Focus in the US and EU to Build a Battery Industry"

Dette viser i stor grad hvilke aktører som har vært i kontakt med REC angående batteridiskusjoner
Falco1
29.12.2018 kl 05:27 6010

Dette blir utrolig spennende fremover.
https://e24.no/boers-og-finans/elkem-bluestar/elkem-satser-paa-elbil-boom-kundene-har-ekstremt-aggressive-vekstplaner/24501906

Vi vet også at Rec har antydet at flere interesser har meldt seg ang tomter osv osv, rundt Butte og Moses lake. Her kan det komme inn avtaler og store forhånds betalinger.

I presentasjonen 3Q18 sa REC
"5,000-10,000 MT Used Today, By Major Battery Makers Like Tesla, Samsung, Panasonic, LG" og videre "Market Could Exceed 100,000 MT › Strong Focus in the US and EU to Build a Battery Industry"

Dette viser i stor grad hvilke aktører som har vært i kontakt med REC angående batterdiskusjoner.

Rec gjør seg også klar for inngang i Kina med nyansettelser.
https://www.indeed.com/m/viewjob?jk=9ab665cf0d765323&from=serp
Announced two days ago.
Redigert 29.12.2018 kl 05:40 Du må logge inn for å svare
Falco1
29.12.2018 kl 06:21 5981

Tar meg også friheten til å kopiere et par innlegg.

JohnnyBGood
08.11.2018 kl 10:11
7042
Prognoser varsler $1 200 000 mill, (altså $ 1 200 000 000 000,-) i invesertinger innen batteriteknologi fram mot år 2040. 1 % av dette kunne jo godt tilfalle REC Silicon :-) Men hvorfor nøye seg med det? Og artikkelen i linken under nevner Li-Ion som den opplagte teknologien. Her kan det forventes å være mange som danser rundt gullkalven, eller skal man heller si silankalven?

https://www.pv-magazine.com/2018/11/07/whats-in-store-for-storage-1-2tn/


Randers
12.11.2018 kl 15:05
6049
Jeg lurer egentlig bare mest på hvem som kjøper tomt først.. 🏭 og når.. 🕥

--

Meet the Fockers

https://www.remax.com/realestateforeclosures/gaylord-butte-mt-59701-fid53390380.html


Innlegget er slettet av kvitekvist
nemi's
04.01.2019 kl 14:25 5127

Steike!

Denne kom i dag. Magnesiumbatterier er i skuddet.

Ingen vet hvor haren hopper. Silisium, magnesium, næringslivssymposium.

https://www.pv-magazine.com/2019/01/04/e-magic-magnesium-batteries-for-a-post-lithium-age/
Redigert 04.01.2019 kl 14:29 Du må logge inn for å svare
grabein
04.01.2019 kl 17:46 5018

Veldig spennende! Mon tro hvem som blir først til å få 100 mil på en bil til under 500K kr. Og hva slags batteriteknologi de bruker.
grabein
05.01.2019 kl 08:33 4825

Vi bør se opp for denne konkurrerende teknologien, som allerede er klar for masseproduksjon: https://powerpulse.net/solid-state-battery-wins-ces-2019-innovation-award/
grabein
10.01.2019 kl 03:36 4494

"While lithium-ion cells have gotten incrementally better over the years, they seem set for a big boost in 2019 through the increased use of an element not unfamiliar to the electronics industry: silicon."

...

"Happily enough, silicon’s expansion problem is not insurmountable. Even now, some lithium-ion batteries have anodes that include particles containing silicon combined with silicon dioxide (the stuff of sand) and coated with carbon. Elon Musk revealed in 2016 that the Tesla’s lithium-ion cells are built that way. But to date, the amount of silicon in anodes has been minimal.

Expect that to change in 2019. To begin with, a California startup named Sila Nanotechnologies plans to commercialize a silicon-rich anode material. Company cofounder and Georgia Tech professor Gleb Yushin says that Sila has developed a “drop-in solution” for existing battery manufacturers, which is slated to go into commercial production in 2019."

...

"That helps explain the interest of BMW, which is working with Sila to explore whether lithium-ion batteries built with the new anode material can be used in its electric cars. Nevertheless, Yushin says “the initial products will be wearables,” for which the cost of the battery is not such a critical factor and the amount of anode material required is much more modest, meaning that his company can more easily meet demand. Yushin expects lithium-ion batteries with Sila anodes will be in millions of devices in 2019."

...

"Sila probably won’t be the only company to unveil a silicon-battery technology this year. Another California company, Enovix, is expected to introduce an anode that is made entirely of silicon and silicon oxides.

Ashok Lahiri, cofounder and chief technology officer for Enovix, along with two colleagues, described the company’s battery technology in detail in these pages in 2017. At the time, Enovix planned to borrow fabrication techniques from the semiconductor industry to construct batteries from thin wafers of solar-grade silicon. But the company reconsidered that strategy after grappling with how to apply it to larger lithium-ion batteries for vehicles. “We realized that the solar-grade substrates could not scale,” says Lahiri.

So Enovix revamped its approach and is now using a metal foil instead of a silicon wafer as the substrate for its battery. The overall geometry of the battery, however, remains the same. It’s just built differently—by stacking components, says Lahiri, who explains that keeping the anode stack under high pressure inhibits the expansion during charge and allows the anode to be made entirely from silicon and silicon oxides.

“We think our battery will be from 30 to 70 percent better, depending on the application,” says Lahiri. If so, or if Sila comes through with an anode that can similarly boost capacity by such double digits, it’ll really shake up the battery industry, where normally, as Lahiri quips, “people kill for 5 or 10 percent.”"

https://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/renewables/to-boost-lithiumion-battery-capacity-by-up-to-70-add-silicon

Nikkei: China to Cut EV Subsidies by 30% in 2019

published: 2019-01-07 11:41

The Chinese government is reported to implement a 30% reduction in the subsidies for the purchase of an electric vehicle (EV) in 2019. Such a move is expected to significantly lower the domestic demand and cause some difficulties for would-be buyers. On the other hand, battery manufacturers based in South Korea stand to gain from a major reduction in subsidies. Since vehicle models equipped with their batteries are excluded from the official subsidy list, the cut will provide them with a more leveled playing field.

The Chinese government initiated the gradual phase-out of EV subsidies in 2018, targeting total elimination by 2020. The intention behind this decision is to compel domestic EV makers to cut costs and improve their competitiveness.

In an interview that took place in December of last year, a representative from the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers told the Nikkei Asian Review that the average subsidy amount for the purchase of an EV is anticipated to be 30% lower in 2019 than in 2018. The same representative also stated that major domestic EV makers are worried that a dramatic scale-back in subsidies will cause EV sales to slide, especially for the popular models. The association is the industry group that assists the government in formulating standards and regulatory policies.

Nikkei has also reported that the total car sales in China for 2019 are projected to reach around 28 million vehicles, of which 1.2 million belong to the category of new energy vehicles. Following the central government’s decision to abolish nation-wide subsidies, local governments across the country are also starting to reduce the additional EV subsidies that they have introduced separately. This in turn is expected to substantially increase the cost burden on potential EV buyers.

However, China’s subsidy program, which uses the driving range on a single charge as the benchmark, may continue to increase the subsidy amount for certain models that offer exceptionally long ranges. In 2018, a vehicle model with a single-charge range of 150km could get an average subsidy of CNY 15,000 (USD 2,178), which is 60% less than the average of 2017. Conversely, a model featuring a 400km range could get an average subsidy of CNY 50,000, which represents a 10% increase from the average of 2017.

BusinessKorea, a media outlet, previously reported that South Korea’s battery suppliers, which include Samsung SDI, LG Chem, and SK Innovation, used to be strong competitors in China’s EV market due to their advantages in cost and product quality. However, they have received scant orders from the Chinese in the recent period, as the Chinese government in supporting domestic battery makers had excluded foreign batteries from it subsidy list. With the phase-out of the subsidies being a definite decision, Korean suppliers are re-establishing themselves in the country in anticipation that they will soon regain their former position.


https://www.energytrend.com/news/20190107-13003.html
grabein
13.01.2019 kl 17:43 4190

Solar-Powered “Pseudo-Satellite” Aircraft Logs First Flight of 26 Days

Powered by "silicon anode" lithium-ion batteries, the Zephyr S HAPS is claimed to have set a world record for longest UAV flight without refueling.

https://www.powerelectronics.com/automotive/solar-powered-pseudo-satellite-aircraft-logs-first-flight-26-days

Liker spesielt dette avsnittet 😎:

It’s known that using silicon here has the potential to increase battery density because one silicon atom can hold on to four lithium ions, while it takes six carbon atoms to hold just one lithium ion. However, there are major issues with swelling and fracturing of the silicon after a few charge/discharge cycles. Amprius claims to have overcome these with its technology, which offers specific energies of over 435 Wh/kg and energy densities in excess of 1200 Wh/liter. (Amprius won’t divulge its Zephyr-related battery-capacity and weight numbers due to their “proprietary nature.”)
Falco1
13.01.2019 kl 23:33 3980

Blir bare mere og mer interessant denne tråden her.
Redigert 14.01.2019 kl 08:33 Du må logge inn for å svare
grabein
15.01.2019 kl 23:17 3795

Ja, er ikke noe å skrive om hver dag, men det later til å forme seg en konsensus rundt silisium i første omgang i hvert fall.

LG Chem Will Invest KRW 1.2 Trillion to Expand Its Battery Plants in Nanjing

2019-01-17

South Korea’s LG Chem announced on January 9 that it will invest KRW 1.2 trillion (USD 1.07 billion) to expand its two battery production plants located in the Chinese city of Nanjing. The initiation of this capacity expansion program is in response to the rising demand in China for powertrain batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs) and cylindrical batteries used in various electronic products.

The Korea Herald, an English-language newspaper published in Seoul, reported in its coverage of the announcement that LG Chem has divided the investment into two parts. Around KRW 600 billion will be spent on raising the production of EV batteries. The remaining amount will be used to raise the production of cylindrical batteries for digital devices and other applications, including electric bicycles, electric scooters, and wireless vacuum cleaners.

B3 Intelligence, a research firm cited by LG Chem in its announcement, forecasts that the global demand for cylindrical batteries will total around 6 billion units this year. This quantity is 2.6 times of that for 2015 and translates to an average annual increase of 27% in the global demand during the 2015-2019 period. LG Chem stated that the expansion of the Nanjing base will enhance its position in China’s newly emerged and rapidly growing battery market.

Business Korea, another Korean media outlet, reported last December that South Korea’s battery suppliers will soon be able to compete on a better footing in China as the country begins phasing out subsidies for domestic battery manufacturers. With better products at lower prices, Korean suppliers are confident that they can capture more orders from Chinese EV manufacturers. Besides LG Chem, Samsung SDI and SK Innovation are now ramping up investments in China as well.

An article published last December on just-auto.com, a website for auto industry news, said that LG Chem anticipates that its EV battery business will turn a profit for the first time in the fourth quarter of 2018.

https://m.energytrend.com/news/view/13090.html
grabein
26.01.2019 kl 23:14 3266

Den amerikanske hæren forsker på batterier, blant annet med silisiumanode.

«The graphite anode is important because it does not grow tiny, destructive hairs called dendrites when recharged. But graphite has capacity limitations, and the Army researchers are trying silicon anodes with very high capacities for lithium.»

https://techlinkcenter.org/army-building-safer-more-powerful-batteries-with-licensing-potential/
grabein
28.01.2019 kl 14:04 2888

30 GWh Battery Gigafactory vurderes i India

Blant de samarbeidende selskapene er Magnis Energy Technologies, som for tiden fokuserer på anoder med et kompositt av grafitt/silisium.

Det later imidlertid til at den nye fabrikken vil først og fremst fokusere på solid state-teknologi fra C4V.

"The plan is for 30 GWh . Tech would come from Charge CCCV(C4V)
India badly would like to catch onto the electric car revolution. The visions and ambitions includes millions of EVs and a lithium-ion battery industry in the country.

According to the latest news, there is a plan for a 30 GWh battery gigafactory (initially it would start at 1 GWh annually). The project is currently being discussed by government and industry partners.

Gigafactory – the name clearly refers to Tesla’s massive battery factory – could be created by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), which 63% of its equity is controlled by the government, and the consortium LIBCOIN, which consist:

Australia-based Magnis Energy Technologies Limited (20%)
Duggal Family Trust
Charge CCCV(C4V), which says that has a working solid-state battery cell
The question is whether there are buyers for batteries from a new, unknown manufacturer?

“Magnis Energy Technologies Limited announced that the Government of India, Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises advises that Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) and LIBCOIN (20% owned by Magnis) are in discussions to build India’s first Li-ion battery gigafactory. BHEL is India’s largest power generation equipment manufacturer; the government holds 63% of its equity.”

“Australia-based and AXS-listed Magnis is a vertically integrated group focused on Lithium-ion batteries. The company has developed and has patent protection on graphite processing techniques that require no downstream chemical or thermal purification treatments, leading to strong green credentials as well as to being the lowest cost producer of spherical graphite above 99.95% total graphitic carbon (TGC) purity.Over the past 5 years Magnis has rapidly moved into Lithium-ion battery technology with a focus on next generation graphite/silicon composite anode materials.”

https://insideevs.com/libcoin-bhel-30-gwh-battery-gigafactory-iindia/
Flyers
31.01.2019 kl 21:07 2448

Ja, dette ser ekstremt bra ut for Rec - både batteri og solar bransjen, og i tillegg ser det ut til å gå bra i samtalene mellom USA og Kina.
Falco1
31.01.2019 kl 22:51 2350

Skal ikke mye til før den store inndekningen kommer fra short nå. Kan raskt gå over krona igjen. Vi så den nylig stoppet på 90 øre sist .
Flyers
31.01.2019 kl 22:55 2331

Tipper det bli løsning på Kina tariffen innen en mnd, oxo - og da kommer vi til å se både 2 og 3 kroner rimelig raskt.
grabein
04.02.2019 kl 15:12 2059

Tesla kjøper Maxwell Technologies.
https://www.nasdaq.com/press-release/maxwell-technologies-announces-definitive-merger-agreement-with-tesla-inc-20190204-00471

Maxwell sier blant annet om seg selv:
"We have developed and transformed our patented, proprietary and fundamental dry electrode manufacturing technology that we have historically used to make ultracapacitors to create a breakthrough technology that can be applied to the manufacturing of batteries."

Jeg vet ikke hva som er i disse ultrakondensatorene, men - og det er mulig jeg klamrer etter halmstrå her - i et skriv i 2016 skrev de om sin Dry Electrode CoatingTechnology:

"Maxwell’s dry coating electrode process is scalable, and can accommodate current lithium ion battery chemistry and advanced battery electrode materials. In this report, the robustness of the dry coating electrode process is demonstrated using a host of commercially available anode materials such as silicon based(!) materials and lithium titanate (LTO), as well as cathode materials such as layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA), 34 3-1 LiFePO4 (LFP) and sulfur."

http://www.powersourcesconference.com/Power%20Sources%202018%20Digest/docs/3-1.pdf

Også her:

"Maxwell Technologies has applied its proprietary dry electrode process to produced lithium ion battery cathode and anode electrode with unparalleled energy density and enhance cycle life over conventional wet coated electrodes. We have demonstrated dry robust process capability, incorporating current and advanced chemistries such as graphite, silicon, metal alloy, and nickel-rich layered transition metal oxides. In addition, we have demonstrated roll-to-roll dry process scalability using common and advanced battery material chemistries."

http://ma.ecsdl.org/content/MA2018-01/3/365.abstract
questi
04.02.2019 kl 17:01 1906

Det Maxwell Tech har forbedret er 'robustheten' av det belegget ligger utenfor anoder og katoder (samt lagvise formasjoner av katoder og anode)... Silisium har vært unngått som anode-materiale fordi den eser ut ved opplading og gjør anoden porøs og skjør over tid. Alt som øker robustheten vil hjelpe :)
Redigert 05.02.2019 kl 14:29 Du må logge inn for å svare

"SANTA CLARITA, Calif., Feb. 05, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- BioSolar, Inc. (OTCQB:BSRC) (“BioSolar” or the “Company”), a developer of breakthrough energy storage technology and materials, today outlined its efforts for preparing commercial grade prototypes spanning material and prototype design and testing, and ultimately seeking potential customer evaluation for the product’s desired performance characteristics."

"Material preparation for the prototype is a critical first step, as the Company requires support from its technology partners to prepare larger quantities of silicon anode materials incorporating the Company’s additive technology suitable for commercial grade battery manufacturing."

“We anticipate that the next generation lithium-ion batteries are going to require next generation silicon anode materials that provide higher energy and power density. We believe our additive technology has the capability to significantly improve and exceed performance objectives for customers without disrupting their manufacturing infrastructure, and ultimately reducing cost to them as well as the end user.”

https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2019/02/05/1710346/0/en/BioSolar-Discloses-the-Process-for-Incorporating-Its-Silicon-Additive-Technology-in-Lithium-ion-Battery-Prototypes.html
Redigert 05.02.2019 kl 13:52 Du må logge inn for å svare
grabein
07.02.2019 kl 15:49 999

CLB Americas Announces New Advanced Silicon Anode & Binder Material Package for NextGen High Energy Lithium Batteries

New Breakthrough Material Dramatically Improves NextGen Lithium Battery Performance when coupled with Ashland's Soteras™ MSi binder

..


Soteras™ MSi binder is a unique water-based binder for high-capacity silicon-based anodes in lithium ion batteries. It controls swelling, resulting in superior cycle performance at capacities greater than 400 mAh/g when used with silicon oxide (SiOx) and silicon composite (SiC) technologies. Flexible and strong, Soteras™MSi binder is compatible with current industry processing requirements.

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/clb-americas-announces-new-advanced-silicon-anode--binder-material-package-for-nextgen-high-energy-lithium-batteries-300791337.html


SK Plans To Double Investment At U.S. Battery Factory

Construction to start later this year
As we learned in December, South Korean SK Innovation intends to build a lithium-ion battery plant in Commerce, Georgia, investing $1.67 billion and employing more than 2,000 people (first phase to be more like $1 billion and more than 1,000 jobs). The article states that by 2022, the output should reach 9.8 GWh annually.

However, according to the latest news – the plant could be way bigger than initially announced. Automotive News reports the investment could double:

“South Korean lithium ion battery producer SK Innovation Co. is doubling down on its planned $1.67 billion electric vehicle battery plant in north Georgia.

The company is considering plowing up to $5 billion more into the project, SK Innovation CEO Jun Kim said Friday.”

$5 billion would be three times the amount quoted a month ago, so there must be strong demand to hint at such an increase within such a short time frame.

SK Innovation customers:

Mercedes-Benz
Hyundai-Kia Motors
Volkswagen
Car plants near planned battery plant:

Hyundai (nearby in Alabama)
Mercedes (nearby in Alabama)
Honda (nearby in Alabama)
Mazda and Toyota (have broken ground on a jointly owned factory in Alabama)
Kia (Georgia)
Volkswagen (Chattanooga, Tennessee).

https://insideevs.com/sk-plans-double-investment-u-s-battery-factory/

Nå like før Q4 kan det være greit å minnes hva som ble sagt på Q3, angående muligheter i forhold til batteri-industrien:
http://hugin.info/136555/R/2221761/869825.pdf (side 23)
grabein
14.02.2019 kl 18:35 387

Det ser ut til at 2-3 år er pessimistisk. Denne teknologien er rett rundt hjørnet.

"Enovix Corporation Charts Course to Production and Commercialization of its 3D Silicon™ Lithium-ion Battery

The Enovix patented 3D cell architecture enables a high-capacity silicon anode that delivers over 900 Wh/l energy density for a smartphone battery with over 500 cycle life

FREMONT, Calif., Feb. 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Survey after survey has revealed that the number one consumer wish for their smartphone and other mobile devices is better battery life. Enovix is on track to fulfill that wish by early 2020 with a smartphone-size battery that incorporates a high-capacity silicon anode to deliver over 900 Wh/l energy density with over 500 cycle life. The company is currently sampling its prototype 3D cells with leading mobile product producers. The feedback regarding energy density and cycle life from prospective customers has been overwhelmingly positive, and Enovix is negotiating joint development agreements for specific products with several global OEMs. The company expects to equip its initial battery fabrication facility (Fab 1) in early 2019 and begin production of its 3D Silicon Lithium-ion Rechargeable Battery for smartphones, wearables and high-performance notebook computers later this year for commercialization by early 2020.

...

"

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/enovix-corporation-charts-course-to-production-and-commercialization-of-its-3d-silicon-lithium-ion-battery-300795241.html


Litt mer usikkert når denne produsenten kommer i masseproduksjon, men jeg har en følelse av at dette kan gå raskere enn man tror:

https://www.einnews.com/pr_news/476373880/clb-americas-announces-new-advanced-silicon-anode-binder-material-package-for-nextgen-high-energy-lithium-batteries
Redigert 14.02.2019 kl 18:37 Du må logge inn for å svare

Jeg er i Frankfurt, hvor jeg akkurat snakket med en fyr fra Panasonics batteriavdeling. Han mener silikonanoder nok kan bli et viktig mellomsteg på veien men mener som mange andre at Litium-ioner på et tidspunkt må erstattes. Solid state er en god kandidat som erstatter, blant andre. Han sa Panasonic holder øye med teknologien for silisiumanoder men at de ikke er sikre på om det lar seg gjøre. Hindrene kan bli for store teknologisk sett. Hvilket forteller meg at det vil ta en stund før evt. verdens største batteriprodusent har slike anoder klare.

Det er jo likevel fullt mulig de kan kjøpe inn anoder fra tredjepart, når den tiden kommer, men jeg hadde håpet på et litt mer klart svar fra batterigiganten.

Jeg er i Frankfurt, hvor jeg akkurat snakket med en fyr fra Panasonics batteriavdeling. Han mener silikonanoder nok kan bli et viktig mellomsteg på veien men mener som mange andre at Litium-ioner på et tidspunkt må erstattes. Solid state er en god kandidat som erstatter, blant andre. Han sa Panasonic holder øye med teknologien for silisiumanoder men at de ikke er sikre på om det lar seg gjøre. Hindrene kan bli for store teknologisk sett. Hvilket forteller meg at det vil ta en stund før evt. verdens største batteriprodusent har slike anoder klare.

Det er jo likevel fullt mulig de kan kjøpe inn anoder fra tredjepart, når den tiden kommer, men jeg hadde håpet på et litt mer klart svar fra batterigiganten.